Jump menu

Main content |  back to top

New windows

Links to non-Shell websites and downloadable files such as PDF, Zip, or Word open in a new browser window when clicked. This allows you to switch between the Shell website and the newly opened window. Links to non-Shell websites will first open a disclaimer statement, which will ask you to click on the ‘Continue your journey’ link to proceed. On all Shell websites, links that open in a new window are clearly marked either by text next to the link title or within the link title tag (alt text).

Page titles

Each page has its own unique page title that clearly explains the page content. This will help you keep track of where you are in the website, and make it possible to distinguish between pages when you have more than one window or tab open.


Headings are relevant and provided in a logical order so that you can use them to get an overview of the page. For screen reader users, this means that you may be able to use screen reader functions to jump from heading to heading, or have a list of all headings displayed, so that you can decide which one is of most interest to you, and then go straight to it.

Data tables

Data tables have row and column headings, where necessary, that are not only visually different from the data cells, but coded so that screen readers will be able to identify them. This will make it possible for screen reader users to find out what the relevant headings are, from anywhere within the table grid.


Links are written so that they are clear, concise, and unique on each page. This makes the links easier to scan visually as well as if you are using a screen reader. 

use of keyboard short cuts

Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.x

Description Shortcut Key
Move virtual cursor to the top of the web page CTRL + Home
Move virtual PC cursor to the end of the web doc CTRL + End
Go to a new web page/visit a new site CTRL + O or CTRL + l
Open another web browser window CTRL + N
To toggle the History pane/window on and off CTRL + H
To toggle the Favorites pane/window on and off CTRL + I
To bookmark the currently loaded page as a Favorite CTRL + D
Opens the 'organize your Favorites' treeview window (Turn off virtual cursor first with insert z) CTRL + B
Move cursor to the Address bar Alt + D
Stop downloading current page ESC
Refresh the currently loaded web page  F5
shortcut keys

Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0

General Shortcuts  
Turn Full Screen Mode on or off F11
Cycle through the Address Bar, Refresh button, Search Box, and items on a web page TAB
Find a word or phrase on a page CTRL+ F
Open the current webpage in a new window CTRL+ N
Print the page CTRL+ P
Select all items on the page CTRL+ A
Zoom in CTRL+ +
Zoom out CTRL+ -
Zoom to 100 CTRL+ 0
Go to home page ALT + Home
Go backwards ALT + Left
Go forward ALT + Right
Refresh page F5
Refresh page and the cache CTRL + F5
Stop downloading page ESC
Open Favorites CTRL + I
Open Favorites in pinned mode CTRL + SHIFT+I
Organize Favorites CTRL + B
Add current page to Favorites CTRL+ D
Open Feeds CTRL+ J 
Open Feeds in pinned mode CTRL+ SHIFT J 
Open History CTRL+ H 
Open History in pinned mode CTRL+ SHIFT+ H
Open link in new background tab CTRL+left mouse button or middle mouse button
Open link in new foreground tab CTRL+SHIFT+left mouse button or CTRL+SHIFT+middle mouse button
Close tab (closes window if only one tab is open) CTRL+W or CTRL+F4
Open Quick Tab view CTRL+Q
Open new tab CTRL+T
View list of open tabs CTRL+SHIFT+Q
Switch to next tab CTRL+TAB
Switch to previous tab CTRL+SHIFT+TAB
Select the Address Bar ALT+D
Add "http://www." to the beginning and ".com" to the end of text in Address Bar CTRL+ ENTER
Add “http://www.” to the beginning and the website address suffix you have specified to the end of text in the Address Bar* CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER
Open the website address that is typed in the Address Bar in new tab ALT + Enter
View list of previously typed addresses F4
Select the Search Bar CTRL+E
View list of search providers CTRL+DOWN
Open search results in new tab ALT+ENTER
Delete cookies, passwords, form data, history, and temporary Internet files Tools > Delete Browsing History
Find and install add-ons Tools > Manage Add-ons > Find More Add-ons
Print part of page Select part of the page you want to print, press CTRL+P, click Selection, and then click Print
Change website address suffix* Tools > Internet Options > Languages
Firefox (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0)
Shortcuts for Firefox users vary between the different keyboard layouts and the operating system being used. For a full reference of keyboard shortcuts please see Morzilla Support.
shortcut keys

Opera 9.0

Open a new tab Ctrl + T
Close a tab Ctrl + W
Cycle between tabs Alt + Page Down or Ctrl + Tab
Scrolling one line up

One line down

One character to the left
One character to the right
One screen up Shift + Space or Page Up
One screen down Space or Page Down
One screen to the left Ctrl + Page Up
One screen to the right Ctrl + Page Down
Go to top Home
Go to bottom End
Next link up Shift + ↑
Next link down Shift + ↓
Next link to the left Shift + ←
Next link to the right Shift + →
Activate link Enter
Activate link in new tab Shift + Enter
Previous page in history Z or Ctrl + ← or Alt + ←
Next page in history X or Ctrl + → or Alt + →
Reload the current page F5 or Ctrl + R
Rewind Shift + Z
Fast forward Shift + X
Show entire backward history Alt + Z
Show entire forward history Alt + X
Find text in page Ctrl + F or .(period), or /
Find next instance of text Ctrl + G
Find previous instance of text Ctrl + Shift + G
Find text in links in page  , (comma), or Shift + /
Use entire screen for viewing page F11
Pretend to be small-screen device Shift + F11
Zoom in 10% + or 0
Zoom out 10% - or 9
Zoom in 100% Ctrl + or 8
Zoom out 100% Ctrl - or 7
Restore zoom to 100%


Open file Ctrl + O
Save copy of page Ctrl + S
Print preview (toggle) Shift + P
Print page Ctrl + P
Close Opera Ctrl + Q
For more information and additional keyboard shortcuts for other browsers please visit the Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB) website.